Adsorption technologies use activated carbon and other materials to adsorb and remove ions, organic matter and other impurities dissolved in water.
The materials activated carbon and zeolite have many very small holes called pores, and the traction of their porous surface causes particles present in liquids or gases to stick to them. For example, in wastewater treatment, water is passed through a device filled with activated carbon, and the traction of the activated carbon's porous surface causes the organic matter, etc. to become stuck inside the pores, removing it from the water.
Adsorption technologies are an efficient way of selectively removing particles from liquids or gases through the selection of an adsorbent with pores that are just the right size
Agglomeration and aggregation technologies are used to aggregate fine dirt particles and impurities in water into larger sized particles that are easier to treat. Flocculation technologies using electro-neutralization and polymers For example, in the treatment of wastewater, suspended solids are separated from water by converting them into larger coarse particles and causing them to precipitate out due to their mass. However, particles suspended in water are stable (do not precipitate out) because they possess a negative surface charge that repels other particles, preventing the agglomeration and coarsening of particles.
There are two types of agglomeration and aggregation technologies.
The first is where a component of the added chemical acts on the surface
Biological treatment technologies consist of technologies that use microorganisms to break down organic matter found in waste water, and energy recovery technologies using bio-metabolism such as methane fermentation.
For example, there are two types of wastewater treatment: treatment using aerobic organisms that can only survive if there is oxygen in the water (aerobic treatment), and treatment using anaerobic organisms that can only survive in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic treatment). Aerobic treatment works on the basis that microorganisms multiply by using the oxygen dissolved in water to break organic matter down into carbon dioxide and water. Anaerobic treatment works on the basis that, in aquatic environments lacking dissolved oxygen, microorganisms multiply by
Dispersion technologies are used in the water treatment chemical segment for dispersing scale-forming salts in boiler water and cooling water and preventing them from sticking to parts of the water system such as pipes and heat exchangers.
For example, if cooling water has a high concentration of dissolved calcium, magnesium or other components that cause water hardness, substances that are insoluble in water, such as calcium carbonate and magnesium silicate, crystallize and precipitate out of solution to adhere to the metal surface, agglomerating to form deposits.
Dispersion technologies combat this because a component of the added chemical sticks to the very small particles as they begin to precipitate out and prevents the aggregation and coarsening of the
Membrane separation and filtration technologies are used to remove suspended solids, fine particles and dissolved substances (organic matter, ions) from water using the pores of separation membranes made from various materials such as organic compounds and inorganic compounds.
Industrial water or well water contains suspended solids because is not treated at purification plants in the same way as the drinking water supply. In water purification, water is passed through a filter medium such as sand and then a membrane needs to be used to separate and remove even finer suspended solids.
Membrane separation and filtration technologies are technologies that selectively allow substances to move through membrane pores and use differences in the pressure of the solution
Sterilization and anti-bacterial technologies are used to prevent deterioration in water quality caused by multiplication of microorganisms in the water, stopping slime from sticking to heat exchangers and separation membranes, and killing and controlling the spread of microorganisms.
For example, bacteria, mold, algae and other microorganisms that have multiplied in cooling water, etc. mix with sand, dust and other debris to form an ooze-like suspension, which reduces the thermal efficiency of heat exchangers, impedes the passage of water, and corrodes equipment and pipes.
These technologies prevent the multiplication of microorganisms because a component of the added chemical kills them by destroying their cell walls or inhibits their activity by altering the